Category – Closed Game
Opening Move Sequence – No specific sequence to White moves 1 d4, 2 e3, 3 Nf3, 4 Bd3, 5 0-0, 6 Re1, 7 c3, 8 Nbd2, 9 e4
ECO Codes – No applicable because it does not follow any specific sequence
Colle System also called Colle-Koltanowski System was introduced to the Chess by Belgian player Edgard Colle and was improved by George Koltanowski in the early to middle twentieth century.
It is a system where White aims to achieve a position with pieces and pawns in specific positions, and not a specific sequence of moves. White attempts to make the following moves 1 d4, 2 e3, 3 Nf3, 4 Bd3, 5 0-0, 6 Re1, 7 c3, 8 Nbd2, 9 e4. Main aim is to advance e4 with the support of an array of pieces after starting with d4. In order to do that White does not have to follow the same sequence of moves but can improvise as required.
It is considered a stable position but does not offer much fluidity of play. The resulting play is even sided. In other words, by playing Colle System White does not gain any specific advantage against a Black player who plays correctly. Because of this Colle System is hardly ever seen is higher level tournaments. However Colle Zukertort System (see below) is sometime played at master level tournaments.
Colle System can be used to avoid other openings. This is especially important in fast play involved in Blitz chess where player may not have time to remember the wrong moves what is nf5 in book variations and can make mistakes.
White’s aims in Colle System do include a King-side attack. This will consist of a Knight exchange at e4 or in case Black refuses that, chasing the Knight at f3 away by advancing the pawn to e6. Then exploiting the now unguarded h7 an attack aimed at mating the King can be started with sacrifice of Bishop at h7. This Bishop sacrifice is some times called Colle’s sacrifice.
Black’s responses to Colle System can be varied. Most active response involves Black setting up a Queen’s Indian like position so that after White’s e4 advance, Black can sabotage the White center. Black will also gain attacking chances in Queen-side
A variation of Colle System is called Colle Zukertort System. This has the White moves: 1 d4, 2 Nf3, 3 e3, 4 Bd3, 5 b3, 6 Bb2, 7 Nbd2, and 8 0-0.The difference is the Bishop at b2. In other words, here White will develop both Bishops while Black will try to mitigate their effects.
1930 game played between Colle and O’Hanlon illustrates the Colle System; 1 d4 d5, 2 Nf3 Nf6, 3 e3 c5, 4 c3 e6, 5 Bd3 Bd6, 6 Nbd2 Nbd7, 7 0-0 0-0, 8 Re1 Re8, 9 e4 dxe4, 10 Nxe4 Nxe4, 11 Bxe4 cxd4, 12 Bxh7+ Kxh7, 13 Ng5+ Kg6, 14 h4 Rh8, 15 Rxe6+ Nf6, 16 h5+ Kh6, 17 Rxd6 Qa5, 18 Nxf7+ Kh7, 19 Ng5+ Kg8, 20Qb3+, Black resigned.
A successful Queen’s Indian like Black response to Colle System is illustrated by 1929 game between Colle and Capablanca. 1 d4 Nf6 2 Nf3 b6 3 e3 Bb7 4 Nbd2 e6 5 Bd3 c5 6 O-O Nc6 7 c3 Be7 8 e4 cxd4 9 Nxd4 O-O 10 Qe2 Ne5 11 Bc2 Qc8 12 f4 Ba6 13 Qd1 Nc6 14 Rf3 g6 15 N2b3 Nxd4 16 Nxd4 Bb7 17 Qe2 Bc5 18 Rh3 Qc6 19 e5 Nd5 20 Qf2 Bxd4 21 cxd4 Rac8 22 Bd1 f6 23 Qh4 Rf7 24 Bf3 Qc4 25 Be3 Nxe3 26 Bxb7 Nf5 27 Qe1 Rc7 28 Be4 Qxd4+ 29 Kh1 fxe5 30 Bxf5 exf5 31 fxe5 Re7 32 Re3 Qxb2 33 e6 dxe6 34 Rxe6 Kf7, White resigned.